March 2017 (World Journal of Management)

March 2017 (World Journal of Management)

Total Articles - 14

Pages 1 – 14

Author: Anu Singh Lather and Shilpa Jain

Engagement is more than mere job satisfaction. Fully engaged employees are motivated and dedicated and ensure that the organizations achieve success. The aim of the current study was to understand demographic differences in the employee engagement level of managers working in National Capital Region, Delhi, India. The study was conducted on a sample of 1250 employees working in the organizations located in this region. The results of the study shows that managers primarily differ in their level of engagement, commitment, emotional connect with the organization, intent to stay with the organization in terms of the their age and marital status. However, they do not differ with respect to their gender. But the results of the interactions show that managers belonging to different gender and age groups, age groups and marital status, and gender, age groups and marital status taken together differ significantly on their levels of engagement, organizational commitment, emotional connect with organization, advocacy, pride and intent to stay with the organizations. However, they do not differ on their job satisfaction. This indicates that engagement in the organizations is largely affected by life events of the individual rather than factors related to the job.

Pages 15 – 31

Author: Fiyad Alenazi, Nuttawuth Muenjohn and Adela McMurray

To date, the relationship between demographic characteristics and leadership behaviour is overlooked in the literature. The current study considered the effect of the demographic characteristics on leadership behaviour in terms of transformational and transactional leadership. The importance of this study stems from the association between the demographic characteristics of the leaders and their leadership behaviour. The data was collected from 438 leaders in the banking industry via a survey. Results identified that educational level had the greatest influence on leadership behaviour than any other demographic characteristics. In addition, the occupational category had a negative correlation with leadership behaviour. The findings are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

Pages 32 - 44

Author: Parisa Salimzadeh

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in regional areas of Australia make significant contributions to the innovation and job growth and stability in the Australian economy. While Regional Australian SMEs contribute significantly to the economic development; they undoubtedly have a significant impact on the environment and social community. This paper examines effective factors on the adoption of sustainability in SMEs operating in a regional city of Australia. First, measurement scales for the impacting factors were developed and validated. Then the paper used survey data from 237 SMEs in the regional city of Ballarat. The paper also investigated any possible differences between the views of owner/managers of small businesses and medium ones on factors impacting the adoption of sustainability. Findings reveal that attitude, commitment and knowledge of owner/managers of SMEs are the most effective factors on the adoption of sustainable practices. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the effect of owner/managers’ perceptions on their businesses’ impacts between small and medium- sized businesses.

Pages 45 – 58

Author: Josephine Moeti-Lysson, Jerry Courvisanos and Evans Sokro

This paper examines employees’ perceptions of managers/supervisors’ industrial relation behaviour in both domestic- and Chinese-owned companies, and whether the employees’ attitudes so derived contribute to conflict in the workplace. Primary data were collected via a structured questionnaire and interviews. The findings of this study indicate that supervisors’ positive or negative behaviours (as perceived by the employees) affect employees’ organisational commitment. Specifically, poor supervisor-employee relationships are positively associated with deviant behaviours. Secondly, rates of deviant behaviours in most categories were higher in Chinese-owned companies. Mutual trust is seen to be a factor in good organisational learning and information sharing.

Pages 59 – 74

Author: Mohamad D. Revindo, Christopher Gan and Cuong Cao Nguyen

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are less able to take advantage of export opportunities from trade liberalization than large firms despite various export assistances provided by the government. This study aims to investigate the strategy and process undertaken by Indonesian SMEs to become exporter. The evidences were collected from 271 exporting SMEs and 226 non-exporting SMEs in 7 provinces. The findings show that potential exporters can be identified through their firm and owner characteristics. Exporting SMEs are driven by certain motivating factors and utilize certain types of networking to source reliable information regarding export opportunities. The findings also show that SMEs’ initial export market is mainly determined by target markets’ size and purchasing power and the time taken for SMEs to internationalize differs across provinces and product groups.

Pages 75 – 93

Author: Marek Matejun and Piotr Sitkiewicz

Human capital is one of the most important intangible assets of each modern business entity. This statement is especially important for the small and medium sized enterprises, which, in most cases lack the tangible resources. Their ability to compete on the market both locally and globally, mostly depends on their flexibility, owner's intuition and the quality of human capital that pushes those companies forward. One of the ways to acquire desirable human capital by the small and medium sized entities, is to influence its transfer from large business enterprises. Taking this into account, the aim of this article is to identify and assess the conditions that increase the benefits as well as reduce the threats, which result from human capital transfer from large entities to the small businesses. To achieve this aim, a research survey was conducted on a sample of 356 micro, small and medium sized companies that operate on polish market. Based on the above, 2 research hypothesizes were verified. The results indicate that the growth of benefits and reduction of threats that result from this specific human capital transfer is determined by the set of: legal, economic, organizational, socio-cultural conditions and technical conditions. The results have moreover high managerial implications, giving advice which conditions should be developed within the companies to increase the level of benefits associated with the process of human capital transfer, and at the same time which of those conditions potentially mitigate the risks.

Pages 94 – 103

Author: Marwa Mostafa Sabry, Assem Tharwat and Ihab El-Khodary

In this paper, an optimized general formula for distributing gains of fuzzy cooperative players, fuzzy coalitions, is proposed. The game is characterized by a fuzzy characteristic function. The formula is derived from a linear multi-objective optimization model for fuzzy cooperative games developed earlier. In the developed model, players do not need to know precise information about the payoff value or even to form a crisp coalition. The optimality of the proposed formula is proved and the properties are verified. The formula is applied to a joint production problem for the purpose of validation and the obtained results are compared with Shapley value for solving fuzzy games. The proposed formula has the advantage of being easier and of less computational effort when compared to applying Shapley value.

Pages 104 – 121

Author: Ebru Kuzgun

The author investigates loyalty states as core drivers of customer engagement so that companies can provide a more targeted communication based on customer’s loyalty levels, and perhaps, eventually increase the consumers' engagement. Responses from 193 customers that were asked to fill out a structured questionnaire in the context of virtual brand communities were analyzed quantitatively with regards to the brand loyalty states, psychological and behavioral customer engagement constructs. The results demonstrate that specific loyalty states drive specific customer engagement states. These results are useful for managers in the endeavor to reap the firm performance outcomes of having more engaged customers.

Pages 122 – 133

Author: Peter Yannopoulos

It is generally recognized that the benefits sought method is an optimal way to segment markets. Social identity theory also explains why people make choices and has been used in explaining various behaviors, such as church attendance and sport games. The social identity theory is used in addition to benefits sought to segment the Greek football market. Based on the results, the football market in Greece can be segmented into three distinct benefit segments. These are “Moderate fans”, “Fanatic fans” and “Indifferent fans.” In addition, each of the three segments are described using various descriptors, such as motivation, demographic information, and information source. An important contribution of this study is to employ social identity in addition to using motivator factors to segment the market.

Pages 134 – 145

Author: Heba Sadek and Passent Tantawi

Globalization, fast technological developments, increased reliance on integrated marketing communication programs and the homogeneous nature of bank services have increased competition and affected the way banks operate in today’s competitive business environment. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of two major marketing communication tools, which consist of advertising and direct marketing on building overall brand equity in the Egyptian banking sector via five customer-based brand equity (CBBE) dimensions (brand awareness, brand perceived quality, brand associations, brand loyalty, and brand trust). This study used a quantitative approach, which consisted of a large- scale questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 465 bank customers based on a quota sampling technique and analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that direct marketing and advertising have a significant positive direct effect on building overall brand equity. Although all CBBE dimensions are interrelated, not all of them directly impact overall brand equity. Only brand perceived quality and brand loyalty were found to have a significant positive direct effect on overall brand equity. Based on the paper’s substantive model, building brand equity requires using an effective marketing communication mix to affect perceived quality and loyalty.

Pages 146 – 158

Author: Vittorio D'Amato, Francesca Macchi and Elena Tosca

This article presents a concrete integrated model for becoming a learning organisation, that is missing for both academia and management. Our proposal integrates many of the accepted best practice approaches on the theme of implementing learning organisation with an analysis conducted through open ended questions with six CEOs of Italian multinational companies that have demonstrated to be learning organisations. The article suggests which are the practical phases that a company has to follow for becoming a learning organisation.

Pages 159 – 169

Author: Abiodun Eniola Alao, Sydney Akinsunmi, Aliu Ajani Odunmbaku and Adebola Lawrence Adeeko

Review of scholarly articles showed a gap in knowledge between strategic marketing practice and performance of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria. The paper focuses on testing the relationship between strategic marketing practice and MSMEs performance in Ogun state, Nigeria. The evidence collected from 234 samples of MSMEs operators and owners showed a strong relationship between strategic marketing and competitive performance of MSMEs, measurable in terms of sales, market share, profit and growth. This implies the need for MSMEs in Nigeria to improve on their strategic marketing content towards ensuring higher competitive performance.

Pages 170 – 188

Author: Toshiko Suda

This research compares human resource management (HRM) in the pharmaceutical and electrical industries in Japan and finds differences between the two industries. In the pharmaceutical industry, both Japanese-owned and foreign-owned firms are moving toward a western type of HRM. In the electrical industry, foreign-owned firms apply a western type of HRM, but Japanese-owned firms continue to use a Japanese type of HRM. The research then analyzed these differences based on institutional entrepreneurship. In the pharmaceutical industry, western-owned large pharmaceutical firms, as the main actors in the global market, act as institutional entrepreneurs. In the electrical industry, whereas western-owned firms introduced a western type of HRM, Japanese-owned firms maintain a Japanese type of HRM; both western- and Japanese-owned firms are the main actors in this global market. These different HRM approaches reflect the competitive power balance in the global market of the two industries.

Pages 189 – 198

Author: Pieter Nel and Denisa Hebblethwaite

Across the globe academics and students are increasingly using social media and social connections for educational purposes. This article focuses on a comparison of particular countries regarding their use of social media in teaching by academics and whether they can utilize this platform for effective communication for engaging students in learning activities as well. The objective is to clarify the usage of social media tools by academics by comparing a multi developed country study (comprising the UK, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Continental Europe and Canada) and a separate developing country study i.e. South Africa. The data was obtained by using SurveyMonkey and executed during 2014 at tertiary educational institutions. The developing country supplied 204 usable responses and the developed countries 711 responses. Suggestions are made regarding the educational environment when using social media tools. It is concluded that academics are communicating with students in a positive way via the use of social media tools for educational purposes, but that much scope exists for improvement in the use of social media for educational purposes by academics. There are also some differences in the use of social media by academics when comparing the developing country and developed countries.

Total Articles- 14

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